Fasting Blood Glucose Test

Table of Contents

Fasting blood glucose test is a series of tests to measure glucose levels in your blood.

Glucose is a monosaccharide and is the primary metabolite for energy production in the body. Carbohydrates are broken down in your digestive system into glucose and other monosaccharides, such as fructose or galactose, before the absorption process in the small intestine.

Glucose is transported into the cells that involve specific transport proteins and requires concurrent uptake of sodium ions. In the blood circulation, the glucose concentration is tightly regulated by various hormones such as insulin, cortisol, and glucagon.

Glucagon is a hormone that regulates the entry of glucose into cells, which affects various metabolic processes such as glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis.

Your body needs glucose for energy. Glucose comes from the food you consume. However, your body does not use up all of the energy you absorb. Insulin makes it possible to store and use as needed.

In a fasting blood glucose test, you are not allowed to eat and drink anything except mineral water for eight hours before the test.

It is preferable if fasting blood glucose is scheduled in the morning so you do not have to fast during the day. This test method is more common as it provides more accurate results and is easier to analyze.

There are various other blood sugar test methods such as the two-hour blood sugar test and random blood sugar test. A two-hour blood sugar test is often performed after a fasting blood sugar test to obtain accurate glucose levels.

Purposes of Fasting Blood Glucose Test

The main purpose of a fasting blood glucose test is to measure the levels of glucose in your blood.

With accurate measurements, your doctor may be able to tell whether you have the potential to develop diabetes or not. Preventive measures can be taken if you have high levels of blood sugar. 

Fasting blood glucose tests are also performed by diabetics to see the effectiveness of treatment. There are two types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.

  • Type 1 diabetes may occur at any age but is most common in children and adolescents. For people with type 1 diabetes, the body produces very little or no insulin, which means it requires daily injections of insulin to keep blood glucose levels under control.
  • Type 2 diabetes is more common in adults and accounts for about 90% of all diabetes cases. Type 2 diabetes is when the body is not able to produce insulin properly. The cornerstone of type 2 diabetes treatment is a healthy lifestyle, including increased physical activity and a healthy diet. However, over time most people with type 2 diabetes will need oral medications and/or insulin to keep their blood glucose levels under control.

Cost Estimation for Fasting Blood Glucose Test 

The cost for a fasting blood sugar test is relatively affordable. Each hospital or clinic sets a different rate.

For more details regarding the cost for a fasting blood sugar test or other tests, contact Smarter Health.

Pre-Fasting Blood Glucose Test

Apart from fasting, you also need to tell your doctor about any medications you consume, including prescription, over-the-counter drugs and herbal supplements.

Certain medications may affect blood glucose levels. Your doctor may ask you to stop taking certain medications temporarily or lower the dose before the test. 

There are several medications that may affect blood sugar, including:

  • Birth control pills
  • Lithium
  • Diuretic
  • Phenytoin
  • Antipsychotics
  • Sulfonylurea
  • Corticosteroids
  • Aspirin (Bufferin)
  • Hormone therapy drugs
  • Tricyclic antidepressants
  • Epinephrine (Adrenaline)
  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)

Stress may also increase your blood sugar. Let your doctor know if you deal with stress. 

During Fasting Blood Glucose Test

When you enter the test room, your health care provider will immediately perform various exam procedures. The steps may include:

  • Taking a blood sample through finger-pricking. If you require other tests, your doctor may require a vein to draw blood. Before drawing blood, your healthcare provider will clean the outer area of ​​the skin with an antiseptic to kill any germs.
  • Then, an elastic band will be tied around your upper arm. This is done to make your veins swell with blood. After the vein is found, a sterile needle will be inserted into it. Blood is then drawn into a tube attached to the needle.
  • You may feel a slight pain so that when the needle is inserted, you can relieve the pain by relaxing the arm.
  • When the blood draw is complete, your healthcare provider removes the needle and places a bandage over the puncture site. Pressure will be applied to the puncture site for several minutes to prevent bruising.
  • The blood sample is then sent to a laboratory for testing. Your doctor will follow up on the sample to discuss the results

Understanding Your Test Results

Your doctor will read you the test results and explain it to you the meaning of the numbers and medical terms on the test.

There are several classifications of tests that you need to know:

  • Normal glucose results
    The implications of your outcome will depend on the type of blood glucose test used. In a fasting glucose test, normal blood glucose levels are between 70 and 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg / dL).
  • Abnormal glucose results
    If you undergo a fasting blood glucose test, the following results are considered abnormal and indicate that you may have prediabetes or diabetes:
    • A blood glucose level of 100-125 mg / dL  –indicates that you have prediabetes.
    • A blood glucose level of 126 mg / dL and higher — indicates that you have diabetes.

If your test results are abnormal, even if it is indicated that you have diabetes, then you must consult your doctor immediately to decide the right treatment. It is also important if the test results indicate abnormal results is to maintain food intake and immediately reduce food and drinks that contain sugar.

Side Effects of Fasting Blood Glucose Test

There is a very low chance that you will experience problems during or after a fasting blood glucose test. As with any other blood tests, a fasting blood glucose test also carries some risks, such as:

  • Wound infection.
  • Dizziness or fainting.
  • Hematoma, or pool of blood under your skin.
  • Excessive wound bleeding in the blood outflow.
  • If your doctor has difficulty finding a vein, he or she may try other areas — which may cause multiple stab wounds if it is difficult to find a vein.

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